Virtual Reality Users’ Stress Reduction and Sport Participation Intention

Effects of Sensation Seeking and Sense of Presence


  • Geumchan Hwang Western Michigan University
  • Kyu-soo Chung Kennesaw State University


virtual reality, sensation seeking, sense of presence, perceived risk of sport, participation intention, stress reduction


The purpose of the study was to examine how Virtual Reality game users’ sensation seeking (high/low), sense of presence (high/low), and perceived risk of sport (high/low) affect stress reduction and intention to participate in sport activities while controlling for sport involvement. 88 college students participated in a lab experiment and data was analyzed using a three-way multivariate analysis of covariance. The results of the study revealed there was a significant multivariate effect of sensation seeking on stress reduction and intention to participate in sport activities. However, the multivariate effect for the sense of presence and perceived risk of sport were not significant. In the following analysis of variance, there were univariate effects of sense of presence and sensation seeking on stress reduction and participation intention, respectively. This study provides sport marketers with practical information for developing strategies to facilitate participation in sport activities through VR sport games. This study also offers an opportunity for coaches and administrators in sport organizations to develop a training or an education program. Finally, the results of the study can be utilized as a therapeutic modality to safely expose people who have phobias or aversions to speed or heights.


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