The Moderating Effect of Trait Aggression on the Relationship Between Spectator Dysfunctional Behavior and Spectator Enjoyment
Keywords:consumer behavior, spectator dysfunctional behavior, aggression, enjoyment, spectator sport
Incidents of spectator dysfunctional behavior (SDB) routinely occur during competitive athletic games and events. Though SDB’s (i.e., fighting, throwing missiles, verbal assault, and disrupting play) typically have a negative connotation, this investigation sought to further understand the positive associations (e.g., enjoyment) of SDB by introducing a moderating variable of trait aggression. In other words, this examination attempts to understand if the psychological impact of SDB’s is different between spectators with higher levels of trait aggression and those with lower levels or trait aggression, in terms of their enjoyment. In this study two experimental designs were constructed and employed, as a two-way repeated measures ANCOVA (Study 1, N = 252) and two-way ANCOVA (Study 2, N = 234) were performed to identify the relationship between trait aggression and enjoyment of SDB viewership. The design of the survey utilized embedded video clips that demonstrated a specific form of SDB. This survey was then distributed to previous MLB attendees, with the results indicating that spectators with higher levels of trait aggression enjoy watching various forms of SDB more than those with lower levels of trait aggression. The findings reiterate and advance the notion that certain spectators enjoy spectating dysfunctional behaviors at sporting events.
Babb, K., & Rich, S. (2016, October 28). A quietly escalating issue for NFL: Fan violence and how to contain it. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/redskins/a-quietly-escalating-issue-for-nfl-fan-violence-and-how-to-contain-it/2016/10/28/4ec37964-9470-11e6-bb29-bf2701dbe0a3_story.html
Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Rosado, A., Maroco, J., & Ross, S. (2012). The effects of emotions on football spectator's satisfaction and behavioral intentions. European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(3), 227-242. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2012.679949
Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2016). Amazon's Mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality data? Methodological issues and strategies in clinical research. American Psychological Association, 6(1), 133–139. https://doi.org/10.1037/14805-009
Clarke, M. (2021, April 16). Disgruntled Yankees fans disrupt game by throwing baseballs onto the field during play. USA Today. https://ftw.usatoday.com/2021/04/yankees-fans-throw-baseballs-on-field-stopping-game-rays
DeNeui, D. L., & Sachau, D. A. (1996). Spectator enjoyment of aggression in intercollegiate hockey games. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 20(1), 69-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019372396020001006
End, C. M., & Foster, N. J. (2010). The effect of seat location, ticket cost, and team identification on sports fans' instrumental and hostile aggression. North American Journal of Psychology, 12(3), 421-432.
Fleischer, A., Mead, A. D., & Huang, J. (2015). Inattentive responding in MTurk and other online samples. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8(2), 196-202. https://doi.org/10.1017/iop.2015.25
Galka, M. (2021, June 16). ‘Suns in 4’: Fight between Denver Nuggets and Phoenix Suns fan causes phrase to go viral. Fox 10 Phoenix. https://www.fox10phoenix.com/news/fight-between-denver-nuggets-and-phoenix-suns-fans-causes-suns-in-4-phrase-to-go-viral
Gleeson, S. (2019, December 2). Hershey Bears fans set record by throwing more than 45,000 stuffed bears onto ice. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/nhl/2019/12/02/hershey-bears-teddy-bear-toss-capitals-record/4350712002/
Hennessy, D. A., & Schwartz, S. (2007). Personal predictors of spectator aggression at little league baseball games. Violence and Victims, 22(2), 205-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/088667007780477384
Hilliard, R. C., & Johnson, C. G. (2018). Sport fan attitude and willingness to commit aggressive acts. Journal of Sport Behavior, 41(3), 305-329.
Jones, M. V., Lane, A. M., Bray, S. R., Uphill, M., &Catlin, J. (2005). Development and validation of the sport emotion questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 27(4), 407-431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.27.4.407
Joyce, G. (2021, February 8). ‘Guy with a bra’ busts out epic spin move in wild Super Bowl streak. FOX Sports. https://www.foxsports.com.au/nfl/superbowl/nfl-super-bowl-2021-buccaneers-beat-chiefs-streaker-runs-on-field-in-tampa-tom-brady/news-story/4ed8547752853c23c090e87a53c07a13
Karpen, E. (2021, July 1). Crazy brawl erupts at Suns-Clippers game 6 after rowdy fan pours beer. New York Post. https://nypost.com/2021/07/01/video-fan-uses-beer-can-in-brawl-at-suns-clippers-game-6/
Kernbach, S., & Schutte, N. S. (2005). The impact of service provider emotional intelligence on customer satisfaction. Journal of Service Management, 19(7), 438-444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08876040510625945
Kim, K. A., & Byon, K. K. (2020). The dark side of spectator behavior: Effects of spectator dysfunctional behavior on anger, rumination, and revisit intention. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 29(3), 228-240. https://doi.org/10.32731/SMQ.293.092020.06
Kim, K. A. Byon, K. K., & Pedersen, P. M. (2020). Coping as a mediation mechanism between severity of spectator dysfunctional behavior and revisit intention: The moderating effects of self-construal in sport consumption. Journal of Sport Management, 34(1), 28-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2018-0356
Lerner, J. S., & Keltner, D. (2000). Beyond valence: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgment and choice. Cognition and Emotion, 14(4), 473-493. https://doi.org/10.1080/026999300402763
Love, J. (2019, October 22). How popular is baseball, really? New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/10/22/sports/baseball/baseball-popularity-world-series.html
Lowe, Z. (2021, June 17). Devin Booker rewards Phoenix Suns fan involved in altercation with Nuggets fans in Denver. ESPN. https://www.espn.com/nba/story/_/id/31651532/devin-booker-rewards-phoenix-suns-fan-involved-altercation-denver-fans
Panzar, J. (2019, March 30). Fight in Dodger Stadium parking lot after six-hour game sends man to hospital. LA Times. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-dodger-fight-20190330-story.html
Pedersen, Z. P., Kim, K. A., Byon, K. K., & Williams, A. S. (2021). The relative influence of spectator dysfunctional behavior on spectator enjoyment in Major League Baseball. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-07-2020-0126
Rogers, R., Strudler, K., Decker, A., & Grazulis, A. (2017). Can augmented-reality technology augment the fan experience?: A model of enjoyment for sport spectators. Journal of Sports Media, 12(2), 25-44. https://doi.org/10.1353/jsm.2017.0009
Shapiro, R. (2019, March 10). Soccer player attacked by fan who ran onto field during the game. HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/soccer-player-attacked-fan-field-game_n_5c857f6de4b08d5b7862dcd0
Shoham, A., Dalakas, V., & Lahv, L. (2015). Consumer misbehavior: Aggressive behavior by sports fans. Services Marketing Quarterly, 36(1), 22-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332969.2015.976506
Webster, G. D., Dewall, C. N., Pond, R. S., Deckman, T., Jonason, P. K., Le, B. M., … Bator, R. J. (2014). The brief aggression questionnaire: Psychometric and behavioral evidence for an efficient measure of trait aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 40(2), 120-139. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21507
Wakefield, K., & Wann, D. L. (2006). An examination of dysfunctional sport fans: Methods of classification and relationships with problem behaviors. Journal of Leisure Research, 38(2), 168-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2006.11950074
Wann, D. L., & Branscombe, N. R. (1993). Sports fans: Measuring degree of identification with their team. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24(1), 1-17.
Wann, D. L., Carlson, J. D., & Schrader, M. P. (1999). The impact of team identification on the hostile and instrumental verbal aggression of sports spectators. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 14(2), 279-286.
Wann, D. L., Grieve, F.G., Zapalac, R. K., & Pease, D. G. (2008). Motivational profiles of sports fans of different sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17(1), 6-19.
Wann, D. L., & Goeke, M. E. (2017). Relationships among dysfunctional fandom, sport fandom, team identification and perceptions of sport and war terminology. Journal of Sport Behavior, 40(2), 231-243.
Wann, D. L., & James, J. D. (2019). Sport fans: the psychology and social impact of fandom (2nd ed.). Routledge.
Wann, D.L., Peterson, R. R., Cothran, C., & Dykes, M. (1999). Sport fan aggression and anonymity: The importance of team identification. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 27(6), 597-602. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.19220.127.116.117
Wann, D. L., Schrader, M. P., & Carlson, J. D. (2000). The verbal aggression of sport spectator: A comparison of hostile and instrumental motives, International Sports Journal, 4(2), 56-63.
Wann, D. L., Weaver, S., Belva, B., Ladd, S., & Armstrong, S. (2015). Investigating the impact of team identification on the willingness to commit verbal and physical aggression by youth baseball spectators. Journal of Amateur Sport, 1(1), 1-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.17161/jas.v1i1.4919
Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (2004). Beyond valence in customer dissatisfaction: A review and new findings on behavioral responses to regret and disappointment in failed services. Journal of Business Research, 57(4), 445-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(02)00278-3