Difference in Perceived Wellness and Training by Varying Psychological Hardiness in Division I Female Lacrosse Athletes


  • Abigail P. Cooley Campbell University
  • Sarah L. Grace
  • Paula Parker
  • Jennifer A. Bunn


team sport, wellness, resilience


Psychological hardiness is composed of three components: commitment, control, and challenge, and describes how individuals respond to stressors in their environment. Evaluating athletes’ psychological hardiness can be used to examine overall wellness and rated perceived exertion (RPE), which can help coaches better plan intensities of practices, understand the physical and mental impact of games, and explore how players overcome obstacles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in subjective responses to training and wellness over the course of collegiate female lacrosse pre-season training by level of psychological hardiness. Players (n = 28) took the Dispositional Resilience Scale-15 (DRS-15) at the beginning of the academic semester and were then divided into two groups based on hardiness levels: above average (AH) and below average (BA). Participants completed a daily pre-training wellness survey and daily post-training RPE questionnaire. There was no difference between hardiness groups for wellness or sRPE (p = .511). The highest wellness scores occurred in weeks with low hour practice and more academic breaks ( p= .000 - .004). Higher RPE scores came from weeks with over four practice hours and weeks with high-intensity pre-season tournaments (p < .001). Hardiness did not serve as a distinguishing factor for perceptions of well-being or exertion. However, two noteworthy results were revealed: 1) none of the athletes were categorized as very high hardiness, and 2) all midfielders were categorized as below average hardiness. This research can assist coaches to implement wellness tactics and manage the subjective load of the athletes throughout an off-season training period.


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