Understanding the Coach’s Role in Identifying and Meeting the Motivations of Soccer Players
Keywords:Motivation, Coaching practice, self-determination
The motivational climate created by the coach is important for the quality of motivation exhibited by players. However, limited research exists investigating if a coach is aware of the motivations held by their players. As such this study investigated the motivations of semi-elite soccer players taking part in club coaching sessions and identified the way in which coaches planned and delivered structured coaching sessions, to address the reasons their players had for attending coaching sessions. Using a qualitative approach with 21 adult soccer players and two soccer coaches, findings from this study highlight a dissonance is apparent between the coaches understanding of their player’s motivational climate and the soccer player’s motivation. Formal, pre-planned methods to meet player’s motivation for participation were not followed suggesting that although the coach may play a major role as a facilitator of the motivational climate this is not achieved through a structured process.
Adie, J. W., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2008). Autonomy support, basic need satisfaction, and the optimal functioning of adult male and female sport participants: a test of basic needs theory. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 189-199.
Álvarez, M. S., Balaguer, I., Castillo, I., & Duda, J.L. (2009). Coach autonomy support and quality of sport engagement in young soccer players. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12, 138–148.
Alvehus, M., Boman, N., Soderlund, K., Svensson, M. B., & Buren, J. (2014). Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and whole-body oxidative capacity in response to resistance training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(7), 1463–1471.
Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.). Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (1st ed., pp. 161–176). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Amorose, A. J. (2007). Coaching Effectiveness: Exploring the Relationship Between Coaching Behaviour and Selfdetermined Motivation. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.). Intrinsic motivation and selfdetermination in exercise and sport (pp. 209–227,347–351). Human Kinetics.
Amorose, A. J., & Horn, T. S. (2001). Pre- to post-season changes in the intrinsic motivation of first-year college athletes: Relationships with coaching behavior and scholarship status. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, 355-373.
Balaguer, I., Castillo, I., Cuevas, R., & Atienza, F. (2018). The Importance of Coaches' Autonomy Support in the Leisure Experience and Well-Being of Young Footballers. Frontiers in Psychology, 9: 840. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00840
Biddle, S. J. H., Cury, F., Goudas, M., Sarrazin, P., Famose, J. P., & Durand, M. (1995). Development of scales to measure perceived physical education class climate: A cross-national project. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65, 341–358.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Cushion, C. (2010). Coach Behaviour. In J. Lyle & C. J. Cushion (Eds.), Sports coaching professionalization and practice (pp. 43–62). London: Elsevier.
Cushion, C., Ford, P. R., & Williams, A. M. (2012). Coach behaviors and practice structures in youth soccer: implications for talent development. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(15), 1631-1641. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.721930
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. (1st ed.). New York: Plenum.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1024–1037.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the selfdetermination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.
Deaner, R. O., Balish, S. M., & Lombardo, M. P. (2016). Sex differences in sports interest and motivation: An evolutionary perspective. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 10(2), 73–97. https://doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000049
Duda, J.L., & Hall, H.K. (2001). Achievement goal theory in sport: Recent extensions and future directions. In Singer, R. N., Hausenblas, H.A., & Janelle, C. M. (Eds.). Handbook of research in sport psychology (2nd ed., pp. 417–434). New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Fagundes, L. H., Noce, F., Albuquerque, M., Andrade, A.P., & Costa, V.T. (2019) Can motivation and overtraining predict burnout in professional soccer athletes in different periods of the season, International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1-16.
Fletcher, D., & Wagstaff, C.R.D. (2009). Organizational psychology in elite sport: Its emergence, application and future. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 427–434.
Forsman, H., Gråstén, A., Blomqvist, M., Davids, K., Liukkonen, J., & Konttinen N. (2016). Development of perceived competence, tactical skills, motivation, technical skills, and speed and agility in young soccer players. Journal of Sports Science, 34(14), 1311-1318.
Garcia-Mas, A., Palou, P., Gili, M., Ponseti, X., Borras, P., Vidal, J., Cruz, J., Torregrosa, M., Villamarin, F., & Sousa, C. (2010). Commitment, Enjoyment and Motivation in Young Soccer Competitive Players. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 609-616.
Gonçalves, C., Silva, M., & Cruz., J. (2007). Effect of gender, practice context and type of modality values in sport for young people. Bulletin of the Portuguese Education Society, 21, 71-86.
Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (Eds.). (2007). Intrinsic motivation and self determination in exercise and sport (1st ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Hendry, D. T., Williams, A.M., Crocker, P. R. E., & Hodges, N. J. (2019). Tracking and comparing self-determined motivation in elite youth soccer: Influence of developmental activities, age, and skill. Frontiers in Psychology. Performance Science, 10, 304.
Holden, S. L., Pugh, S. F., & Schwarz, N. A. (2017). Achievement Motivation of Collegiate Athletes for Sport Participation. International Journal of Sports Science, 7(2), 25-28. doi: 10.5923/j.sports.20170702.01.
Jowett, S., Adie, J. W., Bartholomew, K. J., Yang, S., Gustafsson, H., and Lopez-Jiménez, A. (2017) Motivational processes in the coach-athlete relationship: A multi-cultural self-determination approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 32, 143-152.
Kell, R. T. (2011). The influence of periodized resistance training on strength changes in men and women. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(3), 735–744.
Kerr, J. H. (2019). The multifaceted nature of participation motivation in elite Canadian women rugby union players. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1-16.
Lyle, J., & Cushion, C. (2016). Sports Coaching Concepts. A Framework for coaching practice (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Madigan, D. J., Stoeber, J., & Passfield, L. (2016) Motivation mediates the perfectionism–burnout relationship: A three-wave longitudinal study with junior athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 38(4) 341–354. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2015-0238.
Mallet, C. J., & Hanrahan, S. J. (2004). Elite athletes: why does the ‘fire’ burn so brightly? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 183-200.
Mageau, G.A., & Vallerand, R.J. (2003). The coach-athlete relationship: A motivational model. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21, 883-904.
Meece, J., Glienke, B., & Burg, S. (2006). Gender and motivation. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 351–373.
Newton, M., Duda, J.L., & Yin, Z. (2000). Examination of the psychometric properties of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 in a sample of female athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 275–290.
Ntoumanis, N., & Biddle, S. J. H. (1999). A review of motivational climate in physical activity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 643–665.
Partington, M., & Cushion, C. (2019). Coaching philosophy: an orthodox and symbolic device. In: Corsby. C., & Edwards. C. (Eds.) Context and contingency: Research in sport coaching pedagogy. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 41-48.
Partington, M., & Cushion, C. J. (2013). An investigation of the practice activities and coaching behaviors of professional top-level youth soccer coaches. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23, 374-382.
Parish, L.E., & Treasure, D.C. (2003). Physical activity and situational motivation in physical education: influence of the motivational climate and perceived ability. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74(2), 173-182.
Potrac, P., Brewer, C., Jones, R., Armour, K., & Hoff. J. (2000) Toward an Holistic Understanding of the Coaching Process. Quest, 52, 186-199.
Potrac, P., Jones, R., & Armour, K. (2002). ‘It’s all about getting respect’: The Coaching Behaviours of an Expert English Soccer Coach. Sport Education and Society, 7(2), pp. 183-202.
Reinboth, M., & Duda, J.L. (2006). Perceived motivational climate, need satisfaction and indices of well-being in team sports: A longitudinal perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 269–286.
Roberts, G. C., Treasure, D. C., & Conroy, D. E. (2007). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in sport and physical activity. An achievement goal interpretation. In Tenenbaum, G., & Eklund, R. C. (Eds.). Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed., pp. 3-24). New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2003). On assimilating identities to the self: A self determination theory perspective on internalization and integrity within cultures. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.). Handbook of self and identity (pp. 253–272). New York: Guilford Press.
Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Grolnick, W. S. (1995). Autonomy, relatedness, and the self: Their relation to development and psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.). Developmental psychopathology: Theory and methods (pp. 618-655). New York: Wiley.
Ryan, R.M., Frederick, C.M., Lepes, D., Rubio, D., & Sheldon, K.S. (1997). Intrinsic motivation and exercise adherence. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 28, 355-354.
Soares, J., Antunnes, H., & Van Den Tillar, R. (2013). A comparison between boys and girls about the motives for the participation in school sport. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(3), 303-307.
Smith, A., Thurston, M., Green, K. & Lamb, K. (1997). Young people’s participation in extracurricular physical education: A study of 15–16 year olds in North-West England and North-East Wales. European Physical Education Review, 13(3), 339-368.
Smith, N., Quested, E., Appleton P. R., & Duda, J. L. (2017) Observing the coach-created motivational environment across training and competition in youth sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(2). 149-158.
Swann, C., Moran, A., & Piggott, D. (2015). Defining elite athletes: Issues in the study of expert performance in sport psychology. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 3–14.
Thout, S.M., & Martin, J.W. (1998). Gender differences in performance estimates and self- confidence on a gender-neutral motor task (tennis serve). Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20, S97.
Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (1st ed., pp. 271–360). New York: Academic Press.
Vallerand, R. J., & Losier, G. F. (1999). An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 142–169.
Vallerand, R. J., & Rousseau, F. L. (2001). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise: A review using the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In Singer, R. N., Hausenblas, H. A., & Janelle, C. M. (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp. 389-416). New York: Wiley.
Vallerand, R.J., Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1987). Intrinsic motivation in sport. Exercise and Sport Sciences Review, 15, 389-425.